Peeling

How it works

Generally, there would be skin peeling every 3 weeks for people at the age of 20. Then, the older they become, the lower ability to grow skin cells they would have. For example, people’s skin at the age of 70 peel every 7 weeks. The dead cells sitting in the pores never seem to come out easily. Instead, they cluster so tightly that those newborn cells can’t make their way to grow, resulting in unwanted dullness. Even worse, contacting with the UVs and air pollution makes it harder for skin cells to grow or , in some cases, it prolongs the peeling process.

It’s necessary to regularly maintain your skin and give it youthful vigor by focusing on its peeling process. The secret is to apply the right treatment product at least 1-2 times per week.

Other than that, having the safely and correctly peeling process brings out the incredible effect to your skin since the treatment cream is able to penetrate to the bottom of your skin without the blocking of thick dead cells. You will be amazed how your skin can transform to the better way. Plus, make up is likely to stay longer and look fresh like the moment you step in the office every morning.

Anatomy of skin and its key functions

Skin is the largest organ in the human body fully covering the body to guard all internal organs from the heat, UV rays, infection and polluted surroundings. Other functions include:

  • Stabilize the body temperature
  • Store body water and fat
  • Contain sensory nerves
  • Protect the body from water loss
  • Block all germs and bacteria contact

There are several differences of human skin in different areas, including color, texture, thickness, etc. For instance, there is the highest concentration of hair on the head while there is not even a single piece of hair growing on palms and heels. However, these hairless areas of the body have especially thick layers of skin.

Skin is composed of three different primary layers which have various functions as the followings:

  • Epidermis
  • Dermis
  • Subcutneous fat layer

Epidermis

Epidermis is the outermost layer of the skin, divided into three sublayers:-

Stratum Corneum is composed of keratinocytes and keratin which functions to strengthen skin structure and grow flexibility. It serves as a barrier to protect underlying tissues from infection and dehydration.

When clinging tightly due to the failure of timely peeling, this Stratum Corneum totally seals the pores, leading to blackheads and ultimately inflamed acne. Luckily, AHA acid, which helps in peeling process can be in use to lower a possibility of blackhead occurrence.

Squamous cell or epidermis is below the layer of Stratum Corneum. It is considered the living keratinocytes, which is fully-grown cell and ready to turn itself into the dead one (Stratum Corneum) before falling off.

Basal Layer is the deepest layer of the three layers of the epidermis. It is a continuous layer of cells and primarily made up of basal keratinocyte stem cells, which are the stem cells of the epidermis. They divide to form newborn keratinocytes to replace the expired ones which migrate superficially.

. In this layer, the cells found within the stratum basale are melanocytes (pigment-producing cells).

In young people, such process can perform rapidly, making their skin smooth and healthily bright. However, when they grow old, the process starts performing a lot slower, leaving a pile of dead skins in the pores and on the surface. Even worse, other skin damage factors such as UV rays, pollution, chemicals or cigarette can also accelerate the damage effects. If you are living your everyday life being under those circumstances, there will be no surprise that your skin develops poor conditions like freckles, wrinkles, dark spots and dullness.

Dermis layer

The dermis is the layer of skin beneath the epidermis that consists of:
Blood vessels
Lymphatic vessels
Hair follicles
Sweat glands
Collagen tissues
Fibroblast which generates collagen tissues and elastin
Nerve endings

Subcutneous fat layer

Subcutneous fat layer is the deepest layer of the skin, consisting collagen tissues and fat cell. Fat serves as padding and insulation for the body.

Skin color and melanin synthesis

The process of melanin synthesis involves with:

Melanocyte are melanin-producing located in the bottom layer or the stratum basale of the skin’s epidermis. Melanin is the pigment primarily responsible for skin color. Once synthesized, melanin is contained in a melanosome.

1.Melanocyte are melanin-producing located in the bottom layer or the stratum basale of the skin’s epidermis. Melanin is the pigment primarily responsible for skin color. Once synthesized, melanin is contained in a melanosome.

2.Melanosome is an organ located in Melanocyte responsible for producing, storing and transporting melanin through Dendrite as shown in the picture.

3.Dendrite is a branched protoplasmic extension of Melanocyte that leads to the Keratinocytes as appeared in the picture. Dendrite serves as a transport tube passing on countless melanin bags to Keratinocytes.

Any hindrance of melanin transport influences very low performance of melanin, although a number of them have been produced already.

4. Keratinocyte is the round-shaped predominant cell type in the epidermis and the outermost layer of the skin. It is part of the physical barrier formation, in which the keratinocyte produces more and more keratin and undergo terminal differentiation. The aging keratinocyte that forms the outermost layer is constantly flattened and replaced by new cells (the picture shows no nucleus in the cell).

The dead keratinocyte (with zero nucleus in the cell) cornifies to form Stratum corneum.

NOTE:

Basically, a cell cycle can take up to 28 days. The longer this cycle takes, the duller your skin will be, due largely to the cornification of Keratin. With this reason, peeling is so significant. In order to do that, you may need a helper to weaken the power of the bond between keratin layers. The weakness of this bond causes the dead Keratinocytes to fall off, opening the path for the new ones to grow.

The melanin synthesis occurs in Melanosome inside Melanocyte as shown in the picture.

Based on the picture, the melanin synthesis occurs in the Melanosome before being transported through Dendrite to Keratinocyte. Melanosome acts as a manufacturing plant producing melanin, as a product, and forward it to the showcase, which is comparable to Keratinocyte.

If the process of transporting product is interrupted, the product will not be able to make it to the showcase. Refer to melanin, it is impossible for it to function if it cannot make its way to Keratinocyte. Bravo!!

To make it simpler, let’s take a look at this picture.

The picture above illustrates that Tyrosine is the substrate of the synthesis while melanin is the outcome of the process.

As you can see, the process has something to do with only Tyrosinase. A number of scientists attempted to find the way to inhibit its function whereas other factors seem less important to focus on. Luckily, they successfully made it.

Possible factors for melanin stimulation are listed as below:

UVA is the main influence to directly urge Melanocyte for melanin synthesis as illustrated in the picture. It’s the most common cause of melanin synthesis.

When being contacted with UV rays, Keratinocyte releases a-MSH (Alpha-Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone), Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), Plasmin, Adenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and Endothelial-1, all of which trigger Melanocyte to function.

Besides UV rays from the sunshine, there are other causes of darker skin such as:

Birth control pills or some certain types of hormones, e.g. estrogen or progesterone.

Repeated stress, an obvious effect of dullness.

Some types of medicines that cause thinner layer of skin and light sensitivity.

Chemicals in cosmetics or fragrances, influencing severe skin irritation or inflammation.

Something passed on in the family or nationality such as Asian, Hispanic, etc.

Some types of mineral, e.g. copper, zinc and iron.

According to this article, we found the right way melanin inhibitor as follows:

Step one – Block all skin damage factors such as:

UV rays
Substances that make skin light sensitive
Birth control pills
Stress

Step two – What you can do to make Tyrosinase

Lower its production
Lower its performance
Hinder the performance of newborn Tyrosinase
Interfere its functionality
Accelerate the collapse of Tyrosinase

Step three – Hinder the outcomes of melanin

Destruct the transport of Melanosome to Dendrite